The 2020s started with a pandemic and a war on the European continent. While the former has fostered the twin green and digital transition, the impact of the latter on net-zero targets is still unclear. The automotive sector has felt the hit of both crises.

The Russian war on Ukraine further exacerbated the trade and production pressures stemming from the Covid-19 pandemic. Among others, it aggravated the huge shortage of semiconductor chips, which already in 2021 cut the industry’s output by 8 million vehicles globally.